# Guidelines: Best Practices for Efficient Coding in 2021

As technology continues to evolve, it is important for developers to stay up to date on the latest best practices for efficient coding. In this article, we will explore some key guidelines for efficient coding in 2021, complete with code examples and demonstrations.

SOLID is an acronym for Simple Responsibility, Open/Closed, Liskov Substitution, Interface Segregation, and Dependency Inversion. These principles help developers create clean, modular code that is easy to maintain and extend.

For instance, let us consider the following C# code that violates the SOLID principles:

“`
public class Calculator {
public decimal Value1 { get; set; }
public decimal Value2 { get; set; }
public OperatorType Operator { get; set; }

public decimal Compute() {
decimal value = 0;
switch (Operator) {
value = Value1 + Value2;
break;
case OperatorType.Subtract:
value = Value1 – Value2;
break;
case OperatorType.Multiply:
value = Value1 * Value2;
break;
case OperatorType.Divide:
value = Value1 / Value2;
break;
}
return value;
}
}
“`

Instead, we could use SOLID principles to improve this code as follows:

“`
public interface ICalculator {
decimal Compute(decimal value1, decimal value2);
}

public class Add : ICalculator {
public decimal Compute(decimal value1, decimal value2) {
return value1 + value2;
}
}

public class Subtract : ICalculator {
public decimal Compute(decimal value1, decimal value2) {
return value1 – value2;
}
}

public class Multiply : ICalculator {
public decimal Compute(decimal value1, decimal value2) {
return value1 * value2;
}
}

public class Divide : ICalculator {
public decimal Compute(decimal value1, decimal value2) {
if (value2 == 0)
throw new DivideByZeroException(“Cannot divide by zero”);

return value1 / value2;
}
}

public class Calculator {

public Calculator(ICalculator calculator) {
_calculator = calculator;
}

public decimal Compute(decimal value1, decimal value2) {
return _calculator.Compute(value1, value2);
}
}
“`

This example separates the responsibilities of each class, uses an interface to improve maintainability and testability, and follows the Open/Closed principle by allowing for easy addition of new operators.

2. Reduce Complexity

Complex code can be difficult to understand, debug, and modify. By minimizing complexity, developers can significantly improve the efficiency and reliability of their code.

For example, consider this JavaScript code implementing bubble sort algorithm:

“`
function bubbleSort(array) {
for (var i = 0; i < array.length; i++) { for (var j = 0; j < i; j++) { if (array[j] > array[i]) {
var temp = array[i];
array[i] = array[j];
array[j] = temp;
}
}
}
return array;
}
“`

While this code works, it has a complexity of O(n^2), making it inefficient for larger data sets. We could improve the code by replacing the bubble sort with a more efficient algorithm like QuickSort or MergeSort, or by implementing parallel sorting in cases where multi-core processors are available.

3. Follow Code Standards & Guidelines

Adhering to a consistent code standard and following established guidelines is critical for creating readable, maintainable code.

For instance, the following PHP code does not follow established coding standards:

“`
“`

By making some adjustments to this code, we can make it more consistent with the coding standards:

“`
}
“`

This example uses the correct camelCase naming convention for the function name, properly spaces operators and variables, and uses the pi() function instead of a hardcoded value.

4. Use Libraries and Frameworks

Libraries and frameworks can help to significantly reduce development time, improve code quality, and ensure consistency across projects. Developers should take advantage of widely-used and trusted libraries and frameworks whenever possible.

For example, let us consider this Python code for querying an SQL database:

“`
import mysql.connector

mydb = mysql.connector.connect(
host=”localhost”,
database=”mydatabase”
)

mycursor = mydb.cursor()

mycursor.execute(“SELECT * FROM customers”)

myresult = mycursor.fetchall()

for x in myresult:
print(x)
“`

To make this code more efficient, we could use an ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) library like SQLAlchemy to abstract away the details of the underlying SQL database:

“`
from sqlalchemy import create_engine, select
from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker

Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine)
session = Session()

for customer in session.execute(select(Customer)):
print(customer.name)
“`

This is more efficient because it reduces the amount of code we have to write and allows the ORM to handle SQL query optimization.

Conclusion

Following guidelines for efficient coding can help developers create maintainable, scalable, and high-performing software applications. By following the SOLID principles, reducing complexity, adhering to coding standards, and using libraries and frameworks, developers can create efficient code that is easier to maintain and extend for future features and applications.

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